It is often referred to as ‘pulling a tooth’.
Once a tooth is removed there is no going back, so it is important to consider the alternatives to an extraction and what you intend to do with the space.
Simple extraction. The dentist is able to remove the tooth in a single piece- that is the whole tooth, the crown and all of the roots. This is by far the most common extraction procedure. Sectional extraction. This type of extraction only relates to teeth that have more than one root- that’s all upper and lower molars and the upper 1st premolar.
Surgical extraction. If the tooth to be removed is particularly difficult, then a surgical approach may be needed. This is the case, if the tooth either hasn’t come fully through the gum yet (i.e. impacted), or has broken off below the gum line and the dentist can’t remove it by normal methods.